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J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Nov 4;192:201-209. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.023. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

Tongqiaohuoxue decoction ameliorates obesity-induced inflammation and the prothrombotic state by regulating adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

Author information

1
Division of Metabolism and Nutrition, Korea Food Research Institute, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Republic of Korea.
2
Division of Metabolism and Nutrition, Korea Food Research Institute, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Republic of Korea; Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Republic of Korea.
3
KM Fundamental Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Republic of Korea.
4
Division of Metabolism and Nutrition, Korea Food Research Institute, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Republic of Korea; Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: truka@kfri.re.kr.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Tongqiaohuoxue decoction (THD), a water extract of a mixture of eight species of medicinal herbs, has been used for the treatment of blood stasis and hypercoagulation in traditional East Asian medicine since 18th century.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

To investigate the in vivo efficacy of THD using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with chronic inflammation and a prothrombotic state as an early vascular model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

THD was prepared by hot water extraction and freeze-drying. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups. Group 1 (NC) mice were fed normal chow. Mice in group 2 (HFD) and 3 (HFD+THD) were fed with HFD for 12 weeks. In addition, Group 3 mice were administered with 100mg/kg body weight THD for 4 weeks after onset of obesity by HFD for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests and histological tissue examinations were performed. The levels of adipokines, inflammatory markers, and prothrombotic markers were assessed.

RESULTS:

The oral administration of THD for 4 weeks had no effect on the liver, adipose tissue, or total body weight when the HFD and HFD+THD groups were compared. Nevertheless, mice treated in THD interestingly showed a significant increase in adiponectin in blood and adipose tissue. To verify the effect of THD on adiponectin, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with THD; it stimulated adiponectin production in a dose-dependent manner. In the HFD+THD group, pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly down-regulated in the blood, adipose tissue, and liver. Insulin resistance was also notably improved by THD. Simultaneously, THD significantly reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in serum, adipose tissue, and liver. Fibrin deposition and tPA activity, downstream targets of PAI-1, were also notably reduced in the HFD+THD group compared to the HFD group.

CONCLUSIONS:

THD improved obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by increasing adiponectin production. Additionally, THD administration exerted an anti-thrombotic effect through the regulation of PAI-1 and fibrinolysis. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a traditional East Asian medicine by providing scientific evidence and suggesting a possible mechanism of action.

KEYWORDS:

Adiponectin; Inflammation; Obesity; Prothrombotic state; Tongqiaohuoxue decoction

PMID:
27404230
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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