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World J Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Aug;17(5):321-65. doi: 10.1080/15622975.2016.1181783. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD - a consensus statement. Part I: Neuroimaging and genetics.

Author information

1
a Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , University of Göttingen , Germany ;
2
b Faculty of Medicine , University of Southampton , Southampton , UK ;
3
c Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine , Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa , Italy ;
4
d Department of Psychiatry , University of Milan; Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico , Milan , Italy ;
5
e Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy , University of Wuerzburg , Germany ;
6
f Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust and University of Hertfordshire , Rosanne House, Parkway , Welwyn Garden City , UK ;
7
g Neuroscience Center Zurich , University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich , Zürich , Switzerland ;
8
h Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich , Zürich , Switzerland ;
9
i Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology , University of Zurich , Switzerland ;
10
j Third Department of Psychiatry , Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology , Warszawa , Poland ;
11
k North Estonia Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry , Tallinn , Estonia ;
12
l Department of Psychiatry , University of Tartu , Estonia ;
13
m Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences , Imperial College London , UK ;
14
n Department of Psychology and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute , University of Cambridge , UK ;
15
o Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction & Mental Health , Toronto , Canada ;
16
p Frederick W. Thompson Anxiety Disorders Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre , Toronto , Canada ;
17
q Institute of Medical Science and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

METHODS:

Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network.

RESULTS:

The present article (Part I) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neuroimaging studies, including structural brain morphology, functional magnetic resonance imaging and techniques for measuring metabolic changes, including positron emission tomography and others. Furthermore, this review reports on the clinical and molecular genetic findings of family, twin, linkage, association and genome-wide association studies. Part II of the review focuses on neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high-quality research has accumulated that will improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety disorders; genetic; neurobiology; neuroimaging; obsessive–compulsive disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder; review

PMID:
27403679
DOI:
10.1080/15622975.2016.1181783
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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