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Hypertension. 2016 Aug;68(2):324-33. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07664. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials.

Author information

  • 1From the Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University (X.Z., Y.S.); Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Pinggu Hospital, Beijing, China (Y.L.); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, CA (L.C.D.G.); Center for Magnesium Education and Research, Pahoa, HI (A.R.); Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (J.W.); and Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan (W.Z.).
  • 2From the Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University (X.Z., Y.S.); Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Pinggu Hospital, Beijing, China (Y.L.); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, CA (L.C.D.G.); Center for Magnesium Education and Research, Pahoa, HI (A.R.); Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (J.W.); and Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan (W.Z.). yiqsong@iu.edu.

Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation remains controversial. We aimed to quantify the effect of oral Mg supplementation on blood pressure (BP) by synthesizing available evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. We searched trials of Mg supplementation on normotensive and hypertensive adults published up to February 1, 2016 from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; 34 trials involving 2028 participants were eligible for this meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences of changes in BP and serum Mg were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis. Mg supplementation at a median dose of 368 mg/d for a median duration of 3 months significantly reduced systolic BP by 2.00 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.43-3.58) and diastolic BP by 1.78 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.73-2.82); these reductions were accompanied by 0.05 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.07) elevation of serum Mg compared with placebo. Using a restricted cubic spline curve, we found that Mg supplementation with a dose of 300 mg/d or duration of 1 month is sufficient to elevate serum Mg and reduce BP; and serum Mg was negatively associated with diastolic BP but not systolic BP (all P<0.05). In the stratified analyses, a greater reduction in BP tended to be found in trials with high quality or low dropout rate (all P values for interaction <0.05). However, residual heterogeneity may still exist after considering these possible factors. Our findings indicate a causal effect of Mg supplementation on lowering BPs in adults. Further well-designed trials are warranted to validate the BP-lowering efficacy of optimal Mg treatment.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; hypertension; magnesium; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trial

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