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J Neurochem. 2016 Oct;139 Suppl 1:318-324. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13691. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

The clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

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Department of Neurology, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, CM1 7ET, UK.
Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK.


In this review, the clinical features of Parkinson's disease, both motor and non-motor, are described in the context of the progression of the disease. Also briefly discussed are the major treatment strategies and their complications. Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder, causing impaired motor function with slow movements, tremor and gait and balance disturbances. A variety of non-motor symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease. They include disturbed autonomic function with orthostatic hypotension, constipation and urinary disturbances, a variety of sleep disorders and a spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms. This article describes the different clinical symptoms that may occur and the clinical course of the disease. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.


Parkinson's disease; clinical symptoms; dopamine; therapy

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