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Hormones (Athens). 2016 Jul;15(3):445-452. doi: 10.14310/horm.2002.1686.

A novel MC4R deletion coexisting with FTO and MC1R gene variants, causes severe early onset obesity.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Genetics, Function & Therapy, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus.
2
Department of Biochemistry NMR Centre for Structural Biology, University of Liverpool, Institute of Integrative Biology, Crown Street, Liverpool, UK.
3
Department of Pharmacy and Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus.
4
Department of Molecular Genetics, Function & Therapy, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Paedi Center for specialized Pediatrics, St George's University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Cyprus.
5
Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, USA.
6
Paediatrics & Paediatric Endocrinology Clinic, IASIS Hospital, Paphos, Department of Molecular Genetics, Function & Therapy, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Heterozygous mutations on the melanocortin-4-receptor gene (MC4R) are the most frequent cause of monogenic obesity. We describe a novel MC4R deletion in a girl with severe early onset obesity, tall stature, pale skin and red hair.

CASE REPORT:

Clinical and hormonal parameters were evaluated in a girl born full-term by non-consanguineous parents. Her body mass index (BMI) at presentation (3 years) was 30 kg/m2 (z-score: +4.5SDS). By the age of 5.2 years, she exhibited extreme linear growth acceleration and developed hyperinsulinemia.

METHODS:

Direct sequencing of the MC4R, MC1Rand for the knownFTOsingle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609was performed for the patient and her family.

RESULTS:

A novel heterozygous MC4R p.Met215del (c.643_645delATG) deletion was identified in the patient, her father and her brother, both of whom exhibited a milder phenotype. 3D structural dynamic simulation studies investigated the conformational changes induced by the p.Met215del. The patient and her mother were also found to be carriers of the obesity risk associated FTOrs9939609SNP. Finally, the identification of the known p.Arg160Trp MC1Rvariant in the patient accounts for the red hair and pale skin phenotypic features.

CONCLUSION:

The p.Met215del causes global conformational and functional changes as it is localized at the alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of the beta-barrel. This novel mutation produces a severe overgrowth phenotype that is apparent as from infancy and is progressive in childhood. The additional negative effect of environmental and unhealthy lifestyle habits as well as a possible co-interaction of FTOrs9939609 SNP may worsen the phenotype.

PMID:
27394708
DOI:
10.14310/horm.2002.1686
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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