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J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016 Sep;162:258-265. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.06.042. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Rose bengal uptake by E. faecalis and F. nucleatum and light-mediated antibacterial activity measured by flow cytometry.

Author information

1
Endodontics Unit, Section of Dental Medicine, University of Geneva, 19 rue Barthelemy Menn, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: Daniel.Manoil@unige.ch.
2
Endodontics Unit, Section of Dental Medicine, University of Geneva, 19 rue Barthelemy Menn, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: Anna.Filieri@unige.ch.
3
Service of Infectious Diseases, University Hospitals of Geneva, 24, rue Micheli-du-Crest, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: Jacques.Schrenzel@unige.ch.
4
Endodontics Unit, Section of Dental Medicine, University of Geneva, 19 rue Barthelemy Menn, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: Serge.Bouillaguet@unige.ch.

Abstract

Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using rose bengal (RB) and blue-light kills bacteria through the production of reactive oxygen derivates. However, the interaction mechanism of RB with bacterial cells remains unclear. This study investigated the uptake efficiency and the antibacterial activity of blue light-activated RB against Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Spectrophotometry and epifluorescence microscopy were used to evaluate binding of RB to bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RB after various irradiation times was assessed by flow cytometry in combination with cell sorting. Uptake of RB increased in a concentration dependent manner in both strains although E. faecalis displayed higher uptake values. RB appeared to bind specific sites located at the cellular poles of E. faecalis and at regular intervals along F. nucleatum. Blue-light irradiation of samples incubated with RB significantly reduced bacterial viability. After incubation with 10μM RB and 240s irradiation, only 0.01% (±0.01%) of E. faecalis cells and 0.03% (±0.03%) of F. nucleatum survived after treatment. This study indicated that RB can bind to E. faecalis and F. nucleatum in a sufficient amount to elicit effective aPDT. Epifluorescence microscopy showed a yet-unreported property of RB binding to bacterial membranes. Flow cytometry allowed the detection of bacteria with damaged membranes that were unable to form colonies on agars after cell sorting.

KEYWORDS:

Antibacterial photodynamic therapy; Bacteria; Flow cytometry; LIVE/DEAD BacLight; Photosensitizer uptake; Rose bengal

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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