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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Aug;20(8):1014-21. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.15.0340.

Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult population of Tanzania: a national survey, 2012.

Author information

1
National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
2
National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
3
National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
4
Radiology Department, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
5
Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
6
Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Abstract

SETTING:

Tanzania is classified as one of the 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries; however, the true burden of TB disease in the country remains unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB (PTB) in the adult population.

DESIGN:

This was a community-based cluster randomised survey with proportional-to-population-size selection of primary sampling units (districts). Participants were screened for TB using a symptom questionnaire and chest X-ray (CXR). Those with abnormal CXR and/or at least one symptom suggestive of TB were classified as individuals with presumptive TB, and asked to submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy and culture.

RESULTS:

The weighted prevalence for sputum smear-positive TB cases was 249 per 100 000 adult population (95%CI 192-305) and that for bacteriologically confirmed TB cases was 293/100 000 (95%CI 228-358). Individuals aged ⩾45 years comprised 55% (71/129) of the identified smear-positive cases, but just 28% (6793/24 648) of the notified TB cases. CXR screening identified more TB cases than symptom screening. When weighted for human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among notified new smear-positive cases, the overall case detection of incident TB cases in 2012 was between 37% and 48%.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of sputum smear-positive PTB and bacteriologically confirmed PTB in the adult population was higher than previous World Health Organization estimates. There is a potential underestimation of the number of bacteriologically confirmed PTB cases in the adult population. The age distribution of prevalent cases suggests an epidemiological shift towards the older generations, which has been a sign of successful TB control activities in the past. However, the survey shows that many infectious TB cases are currently missed by the National Tuberculosis Programme.

PMID:
27393533
DOI:
10.5588/ijtld.15.0340
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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