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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Jan;33(1):68-73. doi: 10.1089/AID.2016.0159. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

High HIV-1 Diversity and Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Pregnant Women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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1 Laboratório de AIDS & Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
2 Hospital Geral de Nova Iguaçu , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .


Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatment options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17.2%), and C (4.6%); the circulating recombinant forms 12_BF (2.3%), 28/29_BF, 39_BF, 02_AG (1.1% each) and unique recombinants forms (4.5%). The overall prevalence of any TDR was 17.2%, of which 5.7% for nucleoside RT inhibitors, 5.7% for non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, and 8% for PR inhibitors. The TDR prevalence found in this population may affect the virological outcome of the standard PMTCT ARV-regimens, reinforcing the importance of continuous monitoring.


Brazil; HIV-1; PMTCT; TDR; pregnancy; subtypes

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