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Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Jul 7;99(1):163-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.05.025.

Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families.

Author information

1
Estonian Biocentre and Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
2
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow 119991, Russia; Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow 115478, Russia.
3
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow 119991, Russia.
4
Estonian Biocentre and Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia; Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus.
5
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia; Estonian Biocentre and Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
6
Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia.
7
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia.
8
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia; Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia.
9
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
10
North-Eastern Federal University and Yakut Research Center of Complex Medical Problems, Yakutsk 677010, Sakha Republic, Russia.
11
V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv 61022, Ukraine.
12
Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.
13
Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow 115478, Russia.
14
Estonian Biocentre and Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia; University of Cambridge, CB2 3QG Cambridge, UK.
15
Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
16
Estonian Biocentre and Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia; Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn 10130, Estonia.
17
Estonian Biocentre and Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. Electronic address: sroots@ebc.ee.

Abstract

The paternal haplogroup (hg) N is distributed from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. The demographic processes that have shaped the vast extent of this major Y chromosome lineage across numerous linguistically and autosomally divergent populations have previously been unresolved. On the basis of 94 high-coverage re-sequenced Y chromosomes, we establish and date a detailed hg N phylogeny. We evaluate geographic structure by using 16 distinguishing binary markers in 1,631 hg N Y chromosomes from a collection of 6,521 samples from 56 populations. The more southerly distributed sub-clade N4 emerged before N2a1 and N3, found mostly in the north, but the latter two display more elaborate branching patterns, indicative of regional contrasts in recent expansions. In particular, a number of prominent and well-defined clades with common N3a3'6 ancestry occur in regionally dissimilar northern Eurasian populations, indicating almost simultaneous regional diversification and expansion within the last 5,000 years. This patrilineal genetic affinity is decoupled from the associated higher degree of language diversity.

PMID:
27392075
PMCID:
PMC5005449
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.05.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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