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J Diabetes. 2016 Nov;8(6):782-795. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12446. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Monogenic diabetes: Implementation of translational genomic research towards precision medicine.

Vaxillaire M1,2,3, Froguel P4,5,6,7.

Author information

1
CNRS-UMR 8199, Integrative Genomics and Modelling of Metabolic Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Lille, Lille, France. martine.vaxillaire@cnrs.fr.
2
Lille University, Lille, France. martine.vaxillaire@cnrs.fr.
3
European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Lille, France. martine.vaxillaire@cnrs.fr.
4
CNRS-UMR 8199, Integrative Genomics and Modelling of Metabolic Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Lille, Lille, France.
5
Lille University, Lille, France.
6
European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), Lille, France.
7
Department of Genomics of Common Diseases, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Abstract

Various forms of early onset non-autoimmune diabetes are recognized as monogenic diseases, each subtype being caused by a single highly penetrant gene defect at the individual level. Monogenic diabetes (MD) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, including maturity onset diabetes of the young and infancy-onset and neonatal diabetes mellitus, which are characterized by functional defects of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and hyperglycemia early in life. Depending on the genetic cause, MD differs in the age at diabetes onset, the severity of hyperglycemia, long-term diabetic complications, and extrapancreatic manifestations. In this review we discuss the many challenges of molecular genetic diagnosis of MD in the face of a substantial genetic heterogeneity, as well as the clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of an early genetic diagnosis, as demonstrated by simulation models based on lifetime complications and treatment costs. We also discuss striking examples of proof-of-concept of genomic medicine, which have enabled marked improvement in patient care and long-term clinical management. Recent advances in genome editing and pluripotent stem cell reprogramming technologies provide new opportunities for in vitro diabetes modeling and the discovery of novel drug targets and cell-based diabetes therapies. A review of these future directions makes the case for exciting translational research to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of early onset diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

genetics; genomic medicine; maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY); monogenic diabetes; pancreatic β-cell; 单基因糖尿病; 基因药物; 胰腺β细胞; 遗传学; 青少年发病的成年型糖尿病

PMID:
27390143
DOI:
10.1111/1753-0407.12446
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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