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Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Nov;100:32-42. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.06.018. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Genetically encoded probes for NAD+/NADH monitoring.

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Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow, Russia.
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:


NAD+ and NADH participate in many metabolic reactions. The NAD+/NADH ratio is an important parameter reflecting the general metabolic and redox state of different types of cells. For a long time, in situ and in vivo NAD+/NADH monitoring has been hampered by the lack of suitable tools. The recent development of genetically encoded indicators based on fluorescent proteins linked to specific nucleotide-binding domains has already helped to address this monitoring problem. In this review, we will focus on four available indicators: Peredox, Frex family probes, RexYFP and SoNar. Each indicator has advantages and limitations. We will also discuss the most important points that should be considered when selecting a suitable indicator for certain experimental conditions.


Biosensors; Fluorescent proteins; Frex; NAD; NAD(+); NADH; Peredox; Rex domains; RexYFP; SoNar

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