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J Oral Pathol Med. 2017 Mar;46(3):214-222. doi: 10.1111/jop.12469. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Nano-TiO2 penetration of oral mucosa: in vitro analysis using 3D organotypic human buccal mucosa models.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
2
Gade Laboratory for Pathology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
3
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for International Health, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
4
Department of Oral Surgery, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
5
Department of Ear-Nose-and-Throat Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
6
Oral Health Centre of Expertise in Western Norway, Hordaland, Norway.
7
Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Oral cavity is a doorway for a variety of products containing titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) (nano-TiO2 ) such as food additives, oral healthcare products and dental materials. Their potential to penetrate and affect normal human oral mucosa is not yet determined.

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the ability of nano-TiO2 to penetrate the in vitro reconstructed normal human buccal mucosa (RNHBM).

METHODS:

RNHBM was generated from primary normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from buccal oral mucosa of healthy patients (n = 6). The reconstructed tissues were exposed after 10 days to clinically relevant concentrations of spherical or spindle rutile nano-TiO2 in suspension for short (20 min) and longer time (24 h). Ultrahigh-resolution imaging (URI) microscopy (CytoViva , Auburn, AL, USA) was used to assess the depth of penetration into reconstructed tissues.

RESULTS:

Ultrahigh-resolution imaging microscopy demonstrated the presence of nano-TiO2 mostly in the epithelium of RNHBM at both 20 min and 24-h exposure, and this was shape and doze dependent at 24 h of exposure. The depth of penetration diminished in time at higher concentrations. The exposed epithelium showed increased desquamation but preserved thickness.

CONCLUSION:

Nano-TiO2 is able to penetrate RNHBM and to activate its barrier function in a doze- and time-dependent manner.

KEYWORDS:

epithelium; nanoparticles; oral; organotypic model; titanium dioxide

PMID:
27387227
PMCID:
PMC5347879
DOI:
10.1111/jop.12469
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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