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Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;104(2):499-507. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.127027. Epub 2016 Jul 6.

A prospective study of caffeine and coffee intake and premenstrual syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA;
2
Channing Division of Network Medicine and Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA; Channing Division of Network Medicine and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
4
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA; ebertone@schoolph.umass.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clinically significant premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects 15-20% of premenopausal women, substantially reducing quality of life. Women with PMS often are counseled to minimize caffeine intake, although only limited evidence supports this recommendation.

OBJECTIVE:

We evaluated the association between total caffeine, coffee, and tea intake and the development of PMS in a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II.

DESIGN:

All participants were free from PMS at baseline (1991). PMS cases reported a new clinician-made diagnosis of PMS on biennial questionnaires between 1993 and 2005, and then confirmed symptom timing and moderate-to-severe impact and severity of symptoms with the use of a retrospective questionnaire (n = 1234). Controls did not report PMS and confirmed experiencing no symptoms or few mild symptoms with limited personal impact (n = 2426). Caffeine, coffee, and tea intake was measured by food-frequency questionnaires every 4 y, and data on smoking, body weight, and other factors were updated every 2-4 y. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of total caffeine intake and frequency of coffee and tea consumption with PMS.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, total caffeine intake was not associated with PMS. The OR comparing women with the highest (quintile median = 543 mg/d) to the lowest (quintile median = 18 mg/d) caffeine intake was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.04; P-trend = 0.31). High caffeinated coffee intake also was not associated with risk of PMS or specific symptoms, including breast tenderness (OR for ≥4 cups/d compared with <1/mo: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.12; P-trend = 0.44).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that caffeine intake is not associated with PMS, and that current recommendations for women to reduce caffeine intake may not help prevent the development of PMS.

KEYWORDS:

caffeine; coffee; premenstrual syndrome; tea; women’s health

PMID:
27385613
PMCID:
PMC4962155
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.115.127027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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