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J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Jul;56 Suppl 7:S110-21. doi: 10.1002/jcph.702.

Evaluation and Quantitative Prediction of Renal Transporter-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions.

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Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Groton, CT, USA.


With numerous drugs cleared renally, inhibition of uptake transporters localized on the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells, eg, organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic cation transporters (OCTs), may lead to clinically meaningful drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Additionally, clinical evidence for the possible involvement of efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1/2-K (MATE1/2-K), in the renal DDIs is emerging. Herein, we review recent progress regarding mechanistic understanding of transporter-mediated renal DDIs as well as the quantitative predictability of renal DDIs using static and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. Generally, clinical DDI data suggest that the magnitude of plasma exposure changes attributable to renal DDIs is less than 2-fold, unlike the DDIs associated with inhibition of cytochrome P-450s and/or hepatic uptake transporters. It is concluded that although there is a need for risk assessment early in drug development, current available data imply that safety concerns related to the renal DDIs are generally low. Nevertheless, consideration must be given to the therapeutic index of the victim drug and potential risk in a specific patient population (eg, renal impairment). Finally, in vitro transporter data and clinical pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the first-in-human studies have proven useful in support of quantitative prediction of DDIs associated with inhibition of renal secretory transporters, OATs or OCTs.


drug-drug interactions; quantitative prediction; renal transporters; transporter inhibition

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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