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Nature. 2016 Jul 7;535(7610):75-84. doi: 10.1038/nature18848.

The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
AMED-CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan.
The Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.


In the mucosa, the immune system's T cells and B cells have position-specific phenotypes and functions that are influenced by the microbiota. These cells play pivotal parts in the maintenance of immune homeostasis by suppressing responses to harmless antigens and by enforcing the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa. Imbalances in the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, can trigger several immune disorders through the activity of T cells that are both near to and distant from the site of their induction. Elucidation of the mechanisms that distinguish between homeostatic and pathogenic microbiota-host interactions could identify therapeutic targets for preventing or modulating inflammatory diseases and for boosting the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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