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MBio. 2016 Jul 5;7(4). pii: e00840-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00840-16.

How to Measure Export via Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps.

Author information

  • 1Antimicrobials Research Group, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
  • 2Antimicrobials Research Group, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom l.j.v.piddock@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps are an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance and are required for many pathogens to cause infection. They are also being harnessed to improve microbial biotechnological processes, including biofuel production. Therefore, scientists of many specialties must be able to accurately measure efflux activity. However, myriad methodologies have been described and the most appropriate method is not always clear. Within the scientific literature, many methods are misused or data arising are misinterpreted. The methods for measuring efflux activity can be split into two groups, (i) those that directly measure efflux and (ii) those that measure the intracellular accumulation of a substrate, which is then used to infer efflux activity. Here, we review the methods for measuring efflux and explore the most recent advances in this field, including single-cell or cell-free technologies and mass spectrometry, that are being used to provide more detailed information about efflux pump activity.

PMID:
27381291
PMCID:
PMC4958252
DOI:
10.1128/mBio.00840-16
[PubMed - in process]
Free PMC Article
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