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Sci Total Environ. 2016 Nov 1;569-570:619-626. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.156. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Chemical profiles of urban fugitive dust PM2.5 samples in Northern Chinese cities.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China; Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710049, China. Electronic address: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.
2
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.
3
Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710049, China.
4
Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada.
5
Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710049, China; Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
6
School of Life and Geography Science, Kashgar University, China.

Abstract

Urban fugitive dust PM2.5 samples were collected in 11 selected cities in North China, and 9 ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), F(-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+)) and 22 elements (Si, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were determined to investigate chemical profiles of PM2.5. The coefficient of divergence (CD) was used to compare the similarities of the chemical profiles for fugitive dust among three regions in North China, and the results showed that their composition are quite similar. Total water soluble ions occupied 9.3% and 10.0% on average of road dust and construction dust, respectively, indicating that most of the materials in urban fugitive dust samples were insoluble. Ca(2+) was the most abundant cation and SO4(2-) dominated in anions. Soil dust loading was calculated to occupy 70.8% and 83.6% in road dust and construction dust, respectively. Ca, Si, Fe, and Al were the most abundant elements in all the samples, and Ca was absolutely the most abundant specie among the 22 detected elements in construction dust samples. Chemical species ratios were used to highlight the characteristics of urban fugitive dust by comparing with other types of aerosols. High Ca/Al ratio was a good marker to distinguish urban fugitive dust from Asian dust and Chinese loess. In addition, low K(+)/K and NO3(-)/SO4(2-), and high Zn/Al and Pb/Al ratios were good indicators to separate urban fugitive dust from desert dust, Chinese loess, or urban PM2.5 samples.

KEYWORDS:

Ca/Al ratio; Chemical profiles; Urban fugitive dust

PMID:
27376917
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.156
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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