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J Nutr Biochem. 2016 Sep;35:48-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.05.013. Epub 2016 Jun 19.

Lactobacillus salivarius reverse diabetes-induced intestinal defense impairment in mice through non-defensin protein.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Ta-chung 1st Road, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan; Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan.
2
Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Ta-chung 1st Road, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan.
3
Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Taipei, 112, Taiwan; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec. 2, Shipai Road, Beitou District, Taipei City, 112, Taiwan.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan.
5
Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Ta-chung 1st Road, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan; Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Taipei, 112, Taiwan. Electronic address: lwchen@vghks.gov.tw.

Abstract

Altered intestinal microbiota and subsequent endotoxemia play pathogenic roles in diabetes. We aimed to study the mechanisms of intestinal defense impairment in type 1 diabetes and the effects of Lactobacillus salivarius as well as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) supplementation on diabetes-induced bacterial translocation. Alterations in the enteric microbiome, expression of mucosal antibacterial proteins and bacteria-killing activity of the intestinal mucosa in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and Ins2(Akita) mice were investigated. The effects of dead L. salivarius (2×10(8)CFU/ml) and FOS (250 mg per day) supplementation for 1 week on endotoxin levels and Klebsiella pneumoniae translocation were also examined. Finally, germ-free mice were cohoused with wild-type or Ins2(Akita) mice for 2 weeks to examine the contribution of microbiota on the antibacterial protein expression. STZ-induced diabetic mice developed intestinal defense impairment as demonstrated by decreased mucosal bacteria-killing activity; reduction of non-defensin family proteins, such as Reg3β, Reg3γ, CRP-ductin and RELMβ, but not the defensin family proteins; and increased bacterial translocation. Intestinal bacteria overgrowth, enteric dysbiosis and increased intestinal bacterial translocation, particularly pathogenic K. pneumoniae in STZ-induced diabetic mice and Ins2(Akita) mice, were noted. Treating diabetic mice with dead L. salivarius or FOS reversed enteric dysbiosis, restored mucosal antibacterial protein and lessened endotoxin levels as well as K. pneumoniae translocation. Moreover, germ-free mice cohoused with wild-type mice demonstrated more intestinal Reg3β and RELMβ expression than those cohoused with Ins2(Akita) mice. These results indicate that hyperglycemia induces enteric dysbiosis, reduction of non-defensin proteins as well as bacteria-killing activity of the intestinal mucosa and intestinal defense impairment. Reversal of enteric dysbiosis with dead L. salivarius or FOS supplementation decreases diabetes-induced K. pneumoniae translocation and endotoxin levels through the induction of non-defensin proteins.

KEYWORDS:

Endotoxin; Enteric dysbiosis; Fructooligosaccharides; Hyperglycemia; K. pneumoniae; Reg3β

PMID:
27376728
DOI:
10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.05.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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