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Front Plant Sci. 2016 Jun 7;7:750. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00750. eCollection 2016.

Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

Author information

1
Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria.
2
Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Speciality Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuhan, China.
3
Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, University of ViennaVienna, Austria; Vienna Metabolomics Center, University of ViennaVienna, Austria.
4
Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Speciality Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhan, China; Sino-African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhan, China.

Abstract

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

KEYWORDS:

GC-TOF-MS; LC-Orbitrap-MS; Nelumbo nucifera; mass spectrometry; primary metabolism; seed development

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