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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Sep 2;477(4):887-894. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.06.153. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Dietary omega-3 but not omega-6 fatty acids down-regulate maternal dyslipidemia induced oxidative stress: A three generation study in rats.

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Dept. of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570020, Karnataka, India.
Dept. of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570020, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:



Maternal nutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming and development later. Maternal dyslipidemia effects on oxidative stress (OS) in offsprings and its modulation by dietary fatty acids over generations remains to be elucidated. The objective of present study was to assess the long-term (three generations) effect of omega-3 fatty acids on OS under dyslipidemia.


Weanling female Wistar rats were fed with control diet (7% lard), high fat diet (35% lard, HFL), high fat with fish oil (21% fish oil + 14% lard, HFF), high fat with canola oil (21% canola oil + 14% lard, HFC) and high fat with sunflower oil (21% sunflower oil + 14% lard, HFS). Following 60 days feeding, the female rats were mated with sexually matured males (fed normal chow diet) and continued with the above diet regimen during pregnancy and lactation. The pups after lactation were continued with their maternal diet for 60 days and subjected to mating and feeding trial as above for two generations. Serum lipid profiles, OS markers (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide release and protein carbonyl) and antioxidant defence enzymes (catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase) were assessed in serum, liver and uterus of rats fed on experimental and control diets for three generations.


Feeding HFL diet increased blood lipids, OS and lowered the antioxidant enzymes activity in serum, liver and uterus (p < 0.05). The reduction in the antioxidant enzymes in HFL group were higher in third followed by second generation compared to first generation (p < 0.05). Omega-3 fatty acids prevented the dyslipidemia induced loss of antioxidant enzyme activities in serum, liver and uterus.


Our data show for the first time that offsprings born to dyslipidemic mothers' exhibit diminished enzymatic antioxidant defence and its progressive reduction in future generation, and dietary omega-3 fatty acids restore the enzymatic antioxidant defence in offsprings and suppress the markers of OS.


Anti-oxidant enzymes; Dyslipidemia; Maternal nutrition; Omega-3 fatty acids; Omega-6 fatty acids; Oxidative stress

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