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Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2016 Nov;10(6):455-461. doi: 10.1111/irv.12402. Epub 2016 Jul 23.

Influenza C infections in Western Australia and Victoria from 2008 to 2014.

Author information

1
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
2
PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
3
School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
4
Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
5
School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
6
Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Subiaco, Perth, WA, Australia.
7
Wesfarmers Centre for Vaccines and infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, WA, Australia.
8
Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health, Shenton Park, WA, Australia.
9
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.
10
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity.

OBJECTIVES:

This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years.

PATIENTS/METHODS:

Between 2008 and 2014, 86 respiratory samples that were influenza C positive were collected from subjects with influenza-like illness living in the states of Victoria and Western Australia. A battery of other respiratory viruses were also tested for in these influenza C-positive samples. Virus isolation was attempted on all of these clinical samples, and gene sequencing was performed on all influenza C-positive cultures.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

Detections of influenza C in respiratory samples were sporadic in most years studied, but higher rates of infection occurred in 2012 and 2014. Many of the patients with influenza C had coinfections with other respiratory pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HE) gene found that most of the viruses grouped in the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 clade with the remainder grouping in the C/Kanagawa/1/76 clade.

KEYWORDS:

Australia; children; influenza C; respiratory disease; viruses

PMID:
27373693
PMCID:
PMC5059950
DOI:
10.1111/irv.12402
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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