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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Sep-Oct;4(5):852-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2016.02.022. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Pediatric Sleep Apnea Syndrome: An Update.

Author information

1
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY.
2
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY. Electronic address: celestj@mail.amc.edu.
3
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may be central neurologic (<5%) or obstructive (>95%) in origin and is a relatively prevalent condition in children. It affects 1%-5% of children aged 2-8 years and is caused by a variety of different pathophysiologic abnormalities. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive comorbidities can occur in both children and adults when left untreated. It also can cause severe behavioral problems in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children be screened with an appropriate history and physical examination for symptoms and signs suggestive of OSAS. The diagnosis is primarily made clinically and confirmed by polysomnographic findings. Treatment depends on the child's age, underlying medical problems, polysomnography findings, and whether or not there is upper airway obstruction usually secondary to enlarged adenoids and/or tonsils, allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, acute and chronic sinusitis, and other upper airway pathology. If enlarged adenoid or tonsils or both conditions exist, an adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenotonsillectomy remains the treatment of choice. Pharmacotherapy of OSAS has shown some effect in children with mild symptoms. This paper reviews the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of OSAS.

KEYWORDS:

Adenotonsillectomy; Apnea; Hypopnea; Pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Polysomnography; Snoring

PMID:
27372597
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaip.2016.02.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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