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J Environ Sci (China). 2016 Jul;45:224-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.01.006. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Remediation of saline-sodic soil with flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a reclaimed tidal flat of southeast China.

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East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China.
East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:
The Ohio State University, The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.


Salinization and sodicity are obstacles for vegetation reconstruction of coastal tidal flat soils. A study was conducted with flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum applied at rates of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60Mg/ha to remediate tidal flat soils of the Yangtze River estuary. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), exchangeable sodium (ExNa), pH, soluble salt concentration, and composition of soluble salts were measured in 10cm increments from the surface to 30cm depth after 6 and 18months. The results indicated that the effect of FGD-gypsum is greatest in the 0-10cm mixing soil layer and 60Mg/ha was the optimal rate that can reduce the ESP to below 6% and decrease soil pH to neutral (7.0). The improvement effect was reached after 6months, and remained after 18months. The composition of soluble salts was transformed from sodic salt ions mainly containing Na(+), HCO3(-)+CO3(2-) and Cl(-) to neutral salt ions mainly containing Ca(2+) and SO4(2-). Non-halophyte plants were survived at 90%. The study demonstrates that the use of FGD-gypsum for remediating tidal flat soils is promising.


Composition of soluble salt; ESP; FGD-gypsum; Saline–sodic soil; Tidal flat

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