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Rev Sci Instrum. 2016 Jun;87(6):063704. doi: 10.1063/1.4952954.

Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy mapping at the solid-liquid interface with fast and flexible data acquisition.

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Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz, Germany.


We present the implementation of a three-dimensional mapping routine for probing solid-liquid interfaces using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Our implementation enables fast and flexible data acquisition of up to 20 channels simultaneously. The acquired data can be directly synchronized with commercial atomic force microscope controllers, making our routine easily extendable for related techniques that require additional data channels, e.g., Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the closest approach of the tip to the sample is limited by a user-defined threshold, providing the possibility to prevent potential damage to the tip. The performance of our setup is demonstrated by visualizing the hydration structure above the calcite (10.4) surface in water.


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