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PLoS One. 2016 Jul 1;11(7):e0158536. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158536. eCollection 2016.

Vitamin D Status and Long-Term Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Secondary Data Analysis from a Prospective Cohort.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Drammen Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen, Norway.
2
Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
3
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
4
K.G. Jebsen Inflammatory Research Center, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
5
Clinic for Medical Diagnostics, Bærum Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Rud, Norway.
6
Oslo Center of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Support Services, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
7
Section of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low vitamin D status has been associated with short-term (30-day) mortality in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data on its prevalence in these patients are scarce, and impact on long-term prognosis is unknown. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy and their effect on long-term mortality in hospitalized adults with CAP.

METHODS:

Secondary follow-up analysis of data from a prospectively recruited (January 2008-January 2011) well-defined cohort of 241 hospital survivors of CAP (Norway, latitude 60°N). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were measured within 48 hours of admission. The etiology of CAP was established in 63% of patients through extensive microbiological investigations. Mortality data were obtained from the national Cause of Death Registry. Explanatory strategy and Cox regression models were used to explore the association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS:

Median age was 66 years. Eighty-seven (36%) patients were vitamin D deficient (<30 nmol/L), 81 (34%) were inadequate (30-49 nmol/L), and 73 (30%) were sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Seventy-two patients died over a median of 1839 days (range 1-2520 days), corresponding to cumulative 5-year survival rates of 66.2% (95% CI 56.2-76.2%), 77.0% (67.6-86.4%), and 77.8% (67.8-87.8%) for vitamin D deficient, inadequate, and sufficient patients, respectively. After adjusting for confounders (age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunocompromization and season), vitamin D deficiency, but not inadequacy, was significantly associated with higher mortality compared to patients with sufficiency (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.06-3.45; P = .031).

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy among hospitalized adults with CAP. The results of this study also suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of mortality way beyond the short-term in these patients.

PMID:
27367810
PMCID:
PMC4930204
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0158536
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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