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Blood Cancer J. 2016 Jul 1;6(7):e441. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2016.50.

'Acute myeloid leukemia: a comprehensive review and 2016 update'.

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Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Hematology/Oncology, New York University Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, with an incidence of over 20‚ÄČ000 cases per year in the United States alone. Large chromosomal translocations as well as mutations in the genes involved in hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation result in the accumulation of poorly differentiated myeloid cells. AML is a highly heterogeneous disease; although cases can be stratified into favorable, intermediate and adverse-risk groups based on their cytogenetic profile, prognosis within these categories varies widely. The identification of recurrent genetic mutations, such as FLT3-ITD, NMP1 and CEBPA, has helped refine individual prognosis and guide management. Despite advances in supportive care, the backbone of therapy remains a combination of cytarabine- and anthracycline-based regimens with allogeneic stem cell transplantation for eligible candidates. Elderly patients are often unable to tolerate such regimens, and carry a particularly poor prognosis. Here, we review the major recent advances in the treatment of AML.

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