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J Med Chem. 2016 Oct 27;59(20):9277-9294. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2) Inhibitors: Current Trends and Future Perspectives.

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Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali, UniversitĂ  degli Studi di Messina , Viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.
Dipartimento di Farmacia, UniversitĂ  di Pisa , Via Bonanno Pisano 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy.


G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase that is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and regulates various intracellular mechanisms. The up- or down-regulation of GRK2 correlates with several pathological disorders. GRK2 plays an important role in the maintenance of heart structure and function; thus, this kinase is involved in many cardiovascular diseases. GRK2 up-regulation can worsen cardiac ischemia; furthermore, increased kinase levels occur during the early stages of heart failure and in hypertensive subjects. GRK2 up-regulation can lead to changes in the insulin signaling cascade, which can translate to insulin resistance. Increased GRK2 levels also correlate with the degree of cognitive impairment that is typically observed in Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the most potent and selective GRK2 inhibitors that have been developed. We focus on their mechanism of action, inhibition profile, and structure-activity relationships to provide insight into the further development of GRK2 inhibitors as drug candidates.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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