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Nano Lett. 2016 Aug 10;16(8):4903-8. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01459. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Epitaxial Growth of Single Layer Blue Phosphorus: A New Phase of Two-Dimensional Phosphorus.

Zhang JL1,2, Zhao S3, Han C1,2,4, Wang Z3,5, Zhong S1, Sun S2, Guo R1, Zhou X1, Gu CD1, Yuan KD2, Li Z3, Chen W1,2,4,6.

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Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore , 3 Science Drive 3, 117543, Singapore.
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore , 2 Science Drive 3, 117542, Singapore.
Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Centre for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information & Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei 230026, China.
Center for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore , 3 Science Drive 3, 117546, Singapore.
Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Normal College , Guiyang 550018, China.
National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute , 377 Lin Quan Street, Suzhou Industrial Park, Jiang Su 215123, China.


Blue phosphorus, a previously unknown phase of phosphorus, has been recently predicted by theoretical calculations and shares its layered structure and high stability with black phosphorus, a rapidly rising two-dimensional material. Here, we report a molecular beam epitaxial growth of single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) by using black phosphorus as precursor, through the combination of in situ low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculation. The structure of the as-grown single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) is explained with a (4 × 4) blue phosphorus unit cell coinciding with a (5 × 5) Au(111) unit cell, and this is verified by the theoretical calculations. The electronic bandgap of single layer blue phosphorus on Au(111) is determined to be 1.10 eV by scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurement. The realization of epitaxial growth of large-scale and high quality atomic-layered blue phosphorus can enable the rapid development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices based on this emerging two-dimensional material.


2D material; MBE; STM; blue phosphorus

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