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Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;104(2):306-14. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.129650. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, and Departments of Epidemiology and.
2
Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, and.
3
Prevention Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; and.
4
Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
5
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, and.
6
Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, and Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, and Departments of Epidemiology and mkratz@fredhutch.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation.

DESIGN:

We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods.

RESULTS:

Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein).

CONCLUSION:

Excessive amounts of fructose, HFCS, and glucose from SSBs consumed over 8 d did not differentially affect low-grade chronic systemic inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01424306.

KEYWORDS:

adipose tissue inflammation; fructose; intestinal permeability; sugar-sweetened beverages; systemic inflammation

PMID:
27357093
PMCID:
PMC4962158
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.115.129650
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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