Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Gut Microbes. 2016 Jul 3;7(4):313-322. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Sex differences and hormonal effects on gut microbiota composition in mice.

Author information

1
a Department of Medicine/Division of Cardiology , David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
2
b Estonian Genome Center , University of Tartu , Tartu , Estonia.
3
c Department of Nutritional Sciences , University of Wisconsin , Madison , WI , USA.
4
d Department of Bioanalytical and Discovery Analytical Sciences , Bristol-Myers Squibb , Princeton , NJ , USA.
5
e Department of Cardiovascular Drug Discovery Biology , Bristol-Myers Squibb , Princeton , NJ , USA.
6
f Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine , University of California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
7
g Department of Human Genetics , David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
8
h Department of Microbiology , Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.

Abstract

We previously reported quantitation of gut microbiota in a panel of 89 different inbred strains of mice, and we now examine the question of sex differences in microbiota composition. When the total population of 689 mice was examined together, several taxa exhibited significant differences in abundance between sexes but a larger number of differences were observed at the single strain level, suggesting that sex differences can be obscured by host genetics and environmental factors. We also examined a subset of mice on chow and high fat diets and observed sex-by-diet interactions. We further investigated the sex differences using gonadectomized and hormone treated mice from 3 different inbred strains. Principal coordinate analysis with unweighted UniFrac distances revealed very clear effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on microbiota composition in all 3 strains. Moreover, bile acid analyses showed gender-specific differences as well as effects of gonodectomy, providing one possible mechanism mediating sex differences in microbiota composition.

KEYWORDS:

genetics; gut microbiota interactions; hormones; inbred strains; sex differences; sex-by-diet interactions

PMID:
27355107
PMCID:
PMC4988450
DOI:
10.1080/19490976.2016.1203502
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center