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Trop Med Int Health. 2016 Sep;21(9):1171-80. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12743. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Rhinovirus species and clinical features in children hospitalised with pneumonia from Mozambique.

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School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, Maputo, Mozambique.
ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.



To describe the prevalence of human rhinovirus (RV) species in children hospitalised with pneumonia in Manhiça, Mozambique, and the associations between RV species and demographic, clinical and laboratory features.


Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children 0 to 10 years of age (n = 277) presenting to Manhiça District Hospital with clinical pneumonia. Blood samples were collected for HIV and malaria testing, blood culture and full blood counts, and a chest X-ray was performed. A panel of common respiratory viruses was investigated using two independent multiplex RT-PCR assays with primers specific for each virus and viral type. RV species and genotypes were identified by seminested PCR assays, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses.


At least one respiratory virus was identified in 206 (74.4%) children hospitalised with clinical pneumonia. RV was the most common virus identified in both HIV-infected (17 of 38, 44.7%) and HIV-uninfected (74 of 237, 31.2%; P = 0.100) children. RV-A was the most common RV species identified (47 of 275, 17.0%), followed by RV-C (35/275, 12.6%) and RV-B (8/275, 2.9%). Clinical presentation of the different RV species was similar and overlapping, with no particular species being associated with specific clinical features.


RV-A and RV-C were the most common respiratory viruses identified in children hospitalised with clinical pneumonia in Manhiça. Clinical presentation of RV-A and RV-C was similar and overlapping.


Mozambique; children; enfants; neumonía; niños; pneumonia; pneumonie; rhinovirus

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