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PLoS One. 2016 Jun 28;11(6):e0156634. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156634. eCollection 2016.

The Impact of Macro-and Micronutrients on Predicting Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Konkaen University, Konkaen, Thailand.
2
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
3
Division of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
4
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
5
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Abstract

Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who receive renal replacement therapy (RRT) have very high mortality rate. During RRT, there are markedly loss of macro- and micronutrients which may cause malnutrition and result in impaired renal recovery and patient survival. We aimed to examine the predictive role of macro- and micronutrients on survival and renal outcomes in critically ill patients undergoing continuous RRT (CRRT). This prospective observational study enrolled critically ill patients requiring CRRT at Intensive Care Unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from November 2012 until November 2013. The serum, urine, and effluent fluid were serially collected on the first three days to calculate protein metabolism including dietary protein intake (DPI), nitrogen balance, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR). Serum zinc, selenium, and copper were measured for micronutrients analysis on the first three days of CRRT. Survivor was defined as being alive on day 28 after initiation of CRRT.Dialysis status on day 28 was also determined. Of the 70 critically ill patients requiring CRRT, 27 patients (37.5%) survived on day 28. The DPI and serum albumin of survivors were significantly higher than non-survivors (0.8± 0.2 vs 0.5 ±0.3g/kg/day, p = 0.001, and 3.2±0.5 vs 2.9±0.5 g/dL, p = 0.03, respectively) while other markers were comparable. The DPI alone predicted patient survival with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.69. A combined clinical model predicted survival with AUC of 0.78. When adjusted for differences in albumin level, clinical severity score (APACHEII and SOFA score), and serum creatinine at initiation of CRRT, DPI still independently predicted survival (odds ratio 4.62, p = 0.009). The serum levels of micronutrients in both groups were comparable and unaltered following CRRT. Regarding renal outcome, patients in the dialysis independent group had higher serum albumin levels than the dialysis dependent group, p = 0.01. In conclusion, in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, DPI is a good predictor of patient survival while serum albumin is a good prognosticator of renal outcome.

PMID:
27352307
PMCID:
PMC4924859
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0156634
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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