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Inflamm Res. 2016 Oct;65(10):757-70. doi: 10.1007/s00011-016-0962-x. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a pathophysiology view.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Clinics Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
2
Unit of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
3
Unit of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. acssilva@hotmail.com.
4
Pediatric Branch, Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Alfredo Balena, 190, Room# 281, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30130-100, Brazil. acssilva@hotmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

IgA nephropathy is one of the leading causes of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide and an important etiology of renal disease in young adults. IgA nephropathy is considered an immune complex-mediated disease.

METHODS:

This review article summarizes recent evidence on the pathophysiology of IgA nephropathy.

RESULTS:

Current studies indicate an ordered sequence of multi-hits as fundamental to disease occurrence. Altered glycan structures in the hinge region of the heavy chains of IgA1 molecules act as auto-antigens, potentially triggering the production of glycan-specific autoantibodies. Recognition of novel epitopes by IgA and IgG antibodies leads to the formation of immune complexes galactose deficient-IgA1/anti-glycan IgG or IgA. Immune complexes of IgA combined with FcαRI/CD89 have also been implicated in disease exacerbation. These nephritogenic immune complexes are formed in the circulation and deposited in renal mesangium. Deposited immune complexes ultimately induce glomerular injury, through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, secretion of chemokines and the resultant migration of macrophages into the kidney. The TfR1/CD71 receptor has a pivotal role in mesangial cells. New signaling intracellular mechanisms have also been described.

CONCLUSION:

The knowledge of the whole pathophysiology of this disease could provide the rational bases for developing novel approaches for diagnosis, for monitoring disease activity, and for disease-specific treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-glycan antibodies; Galactose deficiency; Glomerulonephritis; IgA nephropathy; IgA1 glycosylation

PMID:
27351940
DOI:
10.1007/s00011-016-0962-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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