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J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2016 Jun 28;4(2):151-7. doi: 10.14218/JCTH.2016.00003. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Immune Activation in the Liver by Nucleic Acids.

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1
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Abstract

Viral infection in the liver, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, is a major health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The infection triggers a pro-inflammatory response in patients that is crucial for host defense. Recent studies have identified multiple transmembrane and cytosolic receptors that recognize pathogen-derived nucleic acids, and these receptors are essential for driving immune activation in the liver. In addition to sensing DNA/RNA from pathogens, these intracellular receptors can be activated by nucleic acids of host origin in response to sterile injuries. In this review, we discuss the expanding roles of these receptors in both immune and nonimmune cells in the liver.

KEYWORDS:

Hepatocytes; Innate immunity; Intracellular receptor; Nucleic acid

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