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F1000Res. 2016 Apr 27;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-764. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.8197.1. eCollection 2016.

Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics in Axon Regeneration: Insights from C. elegans.

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1
Section of Neurobiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Abstract

The capacity of an axon to regenerate is regulated by its external environment and by cell-intrinsic factors. Studies in a variety of organisms suggest that alterations in axonal microtubule (MT) dynamics have potent effects on axon regeneration. We review recent findings on the regulation of MT dynamics during axon regeneration, focusing on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In C. elegans the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes axon regeneration, whereas the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA-6) inhibits axon regeneration. Both DLK and EFA-6 respond to injury and control axon regeneration in part via MT dynamics. How the DLK and EFA-6 pathways are related is a topic of active investigation, as is the mechanism by which EFA-6 responds to axonal injury. We evaluate potential candidates, such as the MT affinity-regulating kinase PAR-1/MARK, in regulation of EFA-6 and axonal MT dynamics in regeneration.

KEYWORDS:

DLK-1; EFA-6; PAR-1/MARK

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