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Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2016 Jul;36(4):465-76. doi: 10.1111/opo.12307.

Development and validation of a vision and night driving questionnaire.

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School of Optometry and Vision Science, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
School of Public Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.



Night-time driving difficulties are a common concern of older drivers and those with eye disease. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire for assessing vision-related night driving difficulties in older drivers.


Items from existing vision-related quality of life questionnaires and driving studies were used to develop a questionnaire that was completed by 283 participants who reported visual difficulties for night driving (65% female, 50 to >80 years). The questionnaire included items relating to demographic and night driving characteristics (seven items), general vision ratings (eight items), vision-related night driving difficulties (11 items), and a single open question about specific night driving difficulties. The vision-related night driving difficulty items were analysed separately using Rasch analysis to form the vision and night driving questionnaire (VND-Q). Rasch analysis assessed validity and psychometric properties of the scale. Generalised linear regression models examined associations between VND-Q scores and age, gender, amount of night driving, self-rated vision, and eye conditions. Test-retest repeatability was assessed using intra-class correlation analysis and Bland-Altman methods of agreement for a subset of 30 participants.


Rasch analysis indicated that a nine-item VND-Q scale was unidimensional, valid and reliable, and showed excellent discriminant ability (person separation index 3.04; person reliability 0.90). Targeting was better for those with greater self-reported night driving difficulties. Participants with self-reported bilateral eye conditions and worse self-reported general vision ratings had significantly more night driving difficulties with the VND-Q scale than individuals without eye conditions (p = 0.03) and with better general vision ratings (p < 0.001). Females reported more difficulties than males (p < 0.001) and drove shorter distances at night per week which was also associated with greater difficulties (p < 0.001). A repeatability coefficient (Rc ) of 2.07 demonstrated excellent test-retest repeatability.


The nine-item VND-Q is a unidimensional and reliable questionnaire allowing quantification of the level of visual difficulties that older drivers report at night. The development of this questionnaire is an important step in providing a reliable and validated instrument for use to guide appropriate investigations, referrals, or interventions in clinical and research settings.


Rasch analysis; night-driving; patient-reported outcomes; questionnaire; vision

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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