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Mol Oral Microbiol. 2017 Jun;32(3):250-261. doi: 10.1111/omi.12168. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Immunologic environment influences macrophage response to Porphyromonas gingivalis.

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Section of infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA.


Macrophages adapt both phenotypically and functionally to the cytokine balance in host tissue microenvironments. Recent studies established that macrophages contribute an important yet poorly understood role in the development of infection-elicited oral bone loss. We hypothesized that macrophage adaptation to inflammatory signals encountered before pathogen interaction would significantly influence the subsequent immune response of these cells to the keystone oral pathobiont Porphyromonas gingivalis. Employing classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) murine bone-marrow-derived macrophage (BMDMø), we observed that immunologic activation of macrophages before P. gingivalis challenge dictated phenotype-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-associated molecules important to sensing and tuning host response to bacterial infection including Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, CD14, CD18 and CD11b (together comprising CR3), major histocompatibility complex class II, CD80, and CD86. M2 cells responded to P. gingivalis with higher expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and KC than M1 cells. M1 BMDMø expressed higher levels of interleukin-10 to P. gingivalis than M2 BMDMø. Functionally, we observed that M2 BMDMø bound P. gingivalis more robustly than M1 BMDMø. These data describe an important contribution of macrophage skewing in the subsequent development of the cellular immune response to P. gingivalis.


bacterial attachment; cell receptors; chemokines; cytokines; periodontal disease; polarization

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