Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Immunol. 2016 Sep;37(9):588-596. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Innate Antiviral Defenses Independent of Inducible IFNα/β Production.

Author information

Department of Biomedicine, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark; Aarhus Research Center for Innate Immunology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:


The type I interferons (IFNs) (IFNα and IFNβ) not only have potent antiviral activities, but also have pathological functions if produced at high levels or over a long time. Recent articles have described antiviral immune mechanisms that are activated in response to virus infection at epithelial surfaces independently of IFNα and IFNβ. This may allow the host to exert rapid local antiviral activity and only induce a full-blown, and potentially pathological, type I IFN response in situations where stronger protective immunity is needed. Here, I describe the emerging understanding of early antiviral defenses, which are independent of type I IFN responses, and also discuss how this enables tissues to exert rapid antiviral activities and to limit type I IFN production.


epithelial surfaces; innate immunity; type I IFN.; viruses

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center