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Cell Mol Immunol. 2017 Jan;14(1):65-79. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2016.29. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Post-translational regulation of inflammasomes.

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Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7288, USA.
Graduate Program in Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7288, USA.


Inflammasomes play essential roles in immune protection against microbial infections. However, excessive inflammation is implicated in various human diseases, including autoinflammatory syndromes, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, precise regulation of inflammasome activities is critical for adequate immune protection while limiting collateral tissue damage. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of post-translational modifications (PTMs) that regulate activation of the NLRP3, NLRP1, NLRC4, AIM2 and IFI16 inflammasomes. We anticipate that these types of PTMs will be identified in other types of and less well-characterized inflammasomes. Because these highly diverse and versatile PTMs shape distinct inflammatory responses in response to infections and tissue damage, targeting the enzymes involved in these PTMs will undoubtedly offer opportunities for precise modulation of inflammasome activities under various pathophysiological conditions.

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