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J Thromb Haemost. 2016 Sep;14(9):1725-35. doi: 10.1111/jth.13398. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Identification and characterization of the elusive mutation causing the historical von Willebrand Disease type IIC Miami.

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Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
CLOT-ED, Inc., Islamorada, FL, USA.
INSERM UMR_S 1176, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France.
Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology/ZAFES/DCAL, Biocenter, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.
Blood Research Institute of Blood Center of Wisconsin and Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Medilys Central Laboratory Coagulation, Asklepios Clinic Altona, Hamburg, Germany.
Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.


Essentials Von Willebrand disease IIC Miami features high von Willebrand factor (VWF) with reduced function. We aimed to identify and characterize the elusive underlying mutation in the original family. An inframe duplication of VWF exons 9-10 was identified and characterized. The mutation causes a defect in VWF multimerization and decreased VWF clearance from the circulation.


Background A variant of von Willebrand disease (VWD) type 2A, phenotype IIC (VWD2AIIC), is characterized by recessive inheritance, low von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), lack of VWF high-molecular-weight multimers, absence of VWF proteolytic fragments and mutations in the VWF propeptide. A family with dominantly inherited VWD2AIIC but markedly elevated VWF:Ag of > 2 U L(-1) was described as VWD type IIC Miami (VWD2AIIC-Miami) in 1993; however, the molecular defect remained elusive. Objectives To identify the molecular mechanism underlying the phenotype of the original VWD2AIIC-Miami. Patients and Methods We studied the original family with VWD2AIIC-Miami phenotypically and by genotyping. The identified mutation was recombinantly expressed and characterized by standard techniques, confocal imaging and in a mouse model, respectively. Results By Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification we identified an in-frame duplication of VWF exons 9-10 (c.998_1156dup; p.Glu333_385dup) in all patients. Recombinant mutant (rm)VWF only presented as a dimer. Co-expressed with wild-type VWF, the multimer pattern was indistinguishable from patients' plasma VWF. Immunofluorescence studies indicated retention of rmVWF in unusually large intracellular granules in the endoplasmic reticulum. ADAMTS-13 proteolysis of rmVWF under denaturing conditions was normal; however, an aberrant proteolytic fragment was apparent. A decreased ratio of VWF propeptide to VWF:Ag and a 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) test in one patient indicated delayed VWF clearance, which was supported by clearance data after infusion of rmVWF into VWF(-/-) mice. Conclusion The unique phenotype of VWD2 type IIC-Miami results from dominant impairment of multimer assembly, an aberrant structure of mutant mature VWF and reduced clearance in vivo.


ADAMTS-13, mouse; genetics; physiopathology; von Willebrand disease, type 2A; von Willebrand factor

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