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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Oct;23(19):19096-106. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-7073-7. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Photodegradation of the novel fungicide fluopyram in aqueous solution: kinetics, transformation products, and toxicity evolvement.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Pesticide Residues and Environmental Toxicology, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China.
2
Laboratory of Pesticide Residues and Environmental Toxicology, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China. jyhu@ustb.edu.cn.

Abstract

The aqueous photodegradation of fluopyram was investigated under UV light (λ ≥ 200 nm) and simulated sunlight irradiation (λ ≥ 290 nm). The effect of solution pH, fulvic acids (FA), nitrate (NO3 (-)), Fe (III) ions, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) on direct photolysis of fluopyram was explored. The results showed that fluopyram photodegradation was faster in neutral solution than that in acidic and alkaline solutions. The presence of FA, NO3 (-), Fe (III), and TiO2 slightly affected the photodegradation of fluopyram under UV irradiation, whereas the photodegradation rates of fluopyram with 5 mg L(-1) Fe (III) and 500 mg L(-1) TiO2 were about 7-fold and 13-fold faster than that without Fe (III) and TiO2 under simulated sunlight irradiation, respectively. Three typical products for direct photolysis of fluopyram have been isolated and characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These products resulted from the intramolecular elimination of HCl, hydroxyl-substitution, and hydrogen extraction. Based on the identified transformation products and evolution profile, a plausible degradation pathway for the direct photolysis of fluopyram in aqueous solution was proposed. In addition, acute toxicity assays using the Vibrio fischeri bacteria test indicated that the transformation products were more toxic than the parent compound.

KEYWORDS:

Fluopyram; Kinetics; Pathway; Photodegradation; Toxicity; Transformation products

PMID:
27343079
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-016-7073-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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