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Can J Cardiol. 2016 Jul;32(7 Suppl):S15-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.03.002. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

Secondary Prevention Beyond Hospital Discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome: Evidence-Based Recommendations.

Author information

1
St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: fitchettd@smh.ca.
2
St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Heart Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Vigour Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
3
St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4
Canadian Heart Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
5
Vigour Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
6
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
7
Montreal Heart Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
8
St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Heart Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract

In the past 3 decades, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease has resulted in innovations in the treatment and prevention of its clinical manifestations such as death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After an acute coronary syndrome there are short- and long-term risks of subsequent cardiovascular events. This leads to opportunities to initiate strategies to reduce complications resulting from myocardial injury (cardiac protection) and to prevent recurrent acute coronary events (vascular protection). The results from clinical trials inform best practice and guidelines for patient management. Despite clear and consistent guidelines, an important number of patients are not receiving these treatments. Moreover, many others do not receive treatment that follows the strategy proven in the clinical trial and this is associated with a significant loss of opportunities to improve outcomes. The Canadian Heart Research Centre has therefore assembled a panel of experts to provide a review of available data and distill it to specific evidence-based recommendations that can be used by specialists and primary care physicians as a platform for secondary prevention. The therapeutic recommendations are conveniently divided into vascular protection (dual antiplatelet therapy, lipid-lowering, and renin angiotensin system inhibition) which should be considered in all patients; cardiac protection (addition of ╬▓-blocker therapy) in patients with left ventricular dysfunction including consideration for management of heart failure; and continuing management of risk factors and comorbid conditions on the basis of the specific patient profile. These recommendations are intended as a decision support tool and a quick reference for Canadian physicians.

PMID:
27342696
DOI:
10.1016/j.cjca.2016.03.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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