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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2017 Apr;64(4):917-927. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2016.2582472. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time From Bioimpedance and Continuous Wave Radar.



We have developed and tested a new architecture for pulse transit time (PTT) estimation at the central arteries using electrical bioimpedance, electrocardiogram, and continuous wave radar to estimate cuffless blood pressure.


A transmitter and receiver antenna are placed at the sternum to acquire the arterial pulsation at the aortic arch. A four-electrode arrangement across the shoulders acquires arterial pulse across the carotid and subclavian arteries from bioimpedance as well as a bipolar lead I electrocardiogram. The PTT and pulse arrival times (PATs) are measured on six healthy male subjects during exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Using linear regression, the estimated PAT and PTT values are calibrated to the systolic and mean as well as diastolic blood pressure from an oscillometric device.


For all subjects, the Pearson correlation coefficients for PAT-SBP and PTT-SBP are -0.66 (p = 0.001) and -0.48 (p = 0.0029), respectively. Correlation coefficients for individual subjects ranged from -0.54 to -0.9 and -0.37 to -0.95, respectively.


The proposed system architecture is promising in estimating cuffless arterial blood pressure at the central, proximal arteries, which obey the Moens-Korteweg equation more closely when compared to peripheral arteries.


An important advantage of PTT from the carotid and subclavian arteries is that the PTT over the central elastic arteries is measured instead of the peripheral arteries, which potentially reduces the changes in PTT due to vasomotion. Furthermore, the sensors can be completely hidden under a patients clothes, making them more acceptable by the patient for ambulatory monitoring.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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