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Expert Rev Neurother. 2016 Aug;16(8):875-87. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2016.1205487. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Treatment of persistent post-concussion syndrome due to mild traumatic brain injury: current status and future directions.

Hadanny A1,2, Efrati S1,2,3,4.

Author information

1
a The Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research , Assaf Harofeh Medical Center , Zerifin , Israel.
2
b Sackler School of Medicine , Tel-Aviv University , Tel-Aviv , Israel.
3
c Research and Development Unit , Assaf Harofeh Medical Center , Zerifin , Israel.
4
d Sagol School of Neuroscience , Tel-Aviv University , Tel-Aviv , Israel.

Abstract

Persistent post-concussion syndrome caused by mild traumatic brain injury has become a major cause of morbidity and poor quality of life. Unlike the acute care of concussion, there is no consensus for treatment of chronic symptoms. Moreover, most of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments have failed to demonstrate significant efficacy on both the clinical symptoms as well as the pathophysiologic cascade responsible for the permanent brain injury. This article reviews the pathophysiology of PCS, the diagnostic tools and criteria, the current available treatments including pharmacotherapy and different cognitive rehabilitation programs, and promising new treatment directions. A most promising new direction is the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which targets the basic pathological processes responsible for post-concussion symptoms; it is discussed here in depth.

KEYWORDS:

HBOT; Post-concussion; blast; concussion; diagnosis; hyperbaric oxygen; mTBI; pathophysiology; post-traumatic; traumatic brain injury; treatment

PMID:
27337294
DOI:
10.1080/14737175.2016.1205487
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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