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Indian J Psychol Med. 2016 May-Jun;38(3):172-81. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.183086.

Cognitive Impairment and Rehabilitation Strategies After Traumatic Brain Injury.

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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Formerly Clinical Fellow, Division of Physiatry, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Princess Royal Spinal Injuries Unit, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the present world. Around 1.6 million persons sustain TBI, whereas 200,000 die annually in India, thus highlighting the rising need for appropriate cognitive rehabilitation strategies. This literature review assesses the current knowledge of various cognitive rehabilitation training strategies. The entire spectrum of TBI severity; mild to severe, is associated with cognitive deficits of varying degree. Cognitive insufficiency is more prevalent and longer lasting in TBI persons than in the general population. A multidisciplinary approach with neuropsychiatric evaluation is warranted. Attention process training and tasks for attention deficits, compensatory strategies and errorless learning training for memory deficits, pragmatic language skills and social behavior guidance for cognitive-communication disorder, meta-cognitive strategy, and problem-solving training for executive disorder are the mainstay of therapy for cognitive deficits in persons with TBI. Cognitive impairments following TBI are common and vary widely. Different cognitive rehabilitation techniques and combinations in addition to pharmacotherapy are helpful in addressing various cognitive deficits.


Cognitive impairment; cognitive rehabilitation; traumatic brain injury

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