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J Virol. 2016 Aug 12;90(17):7761-77. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00708-16. Print 2016 Sep 1.

Analysis of cis and trans Requirements for DNA Replication at the Right-End Hairpin of the Human Bocavirus 1 Genome.

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Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA


Parvoviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that use the palindromic structures at the ends of the viral genome for their replication. The mechanism of parvovirus replication has been studied mostly in the dependoparvovirus adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) and the protoparvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). Here, we used human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) to understand the replication mechanism of bocaparvovirus. HBoV1 is pathogenic to humans, causing acute respiratory tract infections, especially in young children under 2 years old. By using the duplex replicative form of the HBoV1 genome in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, we identified the HBoV1 minimal replication origin at the right-end hairpin (OriR). Mutagenesis analyses confirmed the putative NS1 binding and nicking sites within the OriR. Of note, unlike the large nonstructural protein (Rep78/68 or NS1) of other parvoviruses, HBoV1 NS1 did not specifically bind OriR in vitro, indicating that other viral and cellular components or the oligomerization of NS1 is required for NS1 binding to the OriR. In vivo studies demonstrated that residues responsible for NS1 binding and nicking are within the origin-binding domain. Further analysis identified that the small nonstructural protein NP1 is required for HBoV1 DNA replication at OriR. NP1 and other viral nonstructural proteins (NS1 to NS4) colocalized within the viral DNA replication centers in both OriR-transfected cells and virus-infected cells, highlighting a direct involvement of NP1 in viral DNA replication at OriR. Overall, our study revealed the characteristics of HBoV1 DNA replication at OriR, suggesting novel characteristics of autonomous parvovirus DNA replication.


Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) causes acute respiratory tract infections in young children. The duplex HBoV1 genome replicates in HEK293 cells and produces progeny virions that are infectious in well-differentiated airway epithelial cells. A recombinant AAV2 vector pseudotyped with an HBoV1 capsid has been developed to efficiently deliver the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene to human airway epithelia. Here, we identified both cis-acting elements and trans-acting proteins that are required for HBoV1 DNA replication at the right-end hairpin in HEK293 cells. We localized the minimal replication origin, which contains both NS1 nicking and binding sites, to a 46-nucleotide sequence in the right-end hairpin. The identification of these essential elements of HBoV1 DNA replication acting both in cis and in trans will provide guidance to develop antiviral strategies targeting viral DNA replication at the right-end hairpin and to design next-generation recombinant HBoV1 vectors, a promising tool for gene therapy of lung diseases.

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