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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Nov;60(11):2379-2386. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600045. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

Author information

1
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
3
Food and Health Programme, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.

Abstract

SCOPE:

Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14).

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin.

KEYWORDS:

Chocolate; Epicatechin; Flavan-3-ol; Randomized controlled trial; Vascular function

PMID:
27329037
DOI:
10.1002/mnfr.201600045
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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