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World J Hepatol. 2016 Jun 8;8(16):665-72. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i16.665.

Mechanisms of adaptation of the hepatic vasculature to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation in liver cirrhosis.

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1
Dmitry Victorovich Garbuzenko, Nikolay Olegovich Arefyev, Department of Faculty Surgery, South Ural State Medical University, 454092 Chelyabinsk, Russia.

Abstract

PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, MIDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1983 and 2015. Relevant articles were selected by using the following terms: "Liver cirrhosis", "Endothelial dysfunction", "Sinusoidal remodeling", "Intrahepatic angiogenesis" and "Pathogenesis of portal hypertension". Then the reference lists of identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well. Besides gross hepatic structural disorders related to diffuse fibrosis and formation of regenerative nodules, the complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis also play important roles in hemodynamic disturbances in liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and impaired paracrine interaction between activated stellate hepatocytes and sinusoidal endotheliocytes, sinusoidal remodeling and capillarization, as well as development of the collateral microcirculation. In spite of the fact that complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis in liver cirrhosis are the compensatory-adaptive reaction to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation, they contribute to progression of disease and development of serious complications, in particular, related to portal hypertension.

KEYWORDS:

Endothelial dysfunction; Intrahepatic angiogenesis; Liver cirrhosis; Pathogenesis of portal hypertension; Sinusoidal remodeling

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