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Behav Res Methods. 2017 Jun;49(3):960-966. doi: 10.3758/s13428-016-0756-7.

The creation and validation of the Developmental Emotional Faces Stimulus Set.

Author information

1
Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Rd, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA. sinne035@umn.edu.
2
Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Rd, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Abstract

The Developmental Emotional Faces Stimulus Set (DEFSS) is designed to provide a standardized set of emotional stimuli that includes both child and adult faces and that has been validated by participants across a wide range of ages. This article describes the creation and validation of the DEFSS, which includes 404 validated facial photographs of people between 8 and 30 years old displaying five different emotional expressions: happy, angry, fearful, sad, and neutral. The emotions in all photographs were identified correctly by 86 % of the raters (minimum 55 %), and validity did not vary as a function of the age group of the model or of the raters, indicating that the pictures are equally appropriate for use across the entire age range. Strengths and limitations of the DEFSS are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Development; Emotions; Face processing; Stimulus set

PMID:
27325165
PMCID:
PMC5173446
DOI:
10.3758/s13428-016-0756-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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