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Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 21;6:28061. doi: 10.1038/srep28061.

Characterization of the microbiome of nipple aspirate fluid of breast cancer survivors.

Author information

1
Dirks/Dougherty Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Translational Immunology, John Wayne Cancer Institute at Providence Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA.
2
Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
3
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
4
Breast Center at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Westwood, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
5
Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation, Encino, CA, USA.

Abstract

The microbiome impacts human health and disease. Until recently, human breast tissue and milk were presumed to be sterile. Here, we investigated the presence of microbes in the nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and their potential association with breast cancer. We compared the NAF microbiome between women with a history of breast cancer (BC) and healthy control women (HC) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The NAF microbiome from BC and HC showed significant differences in community composition. Two Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) showed differences in relative abundances between NAF collected from BC and HC. In NAF collected from BC, there was relatively higher incidence of the genus Alistipes. By contrast, an unclassified genus from the Sphingomonadaceae family was relatively more abundant in NAF from HC. These findings reflect the ductal source DNA since there were no differences between areolar skin samples collected from BC and HC. Furthermore, the microbes associated with BC share an enzymatic activity, Beta-Glucuronidase, which may promote breast cancer. This is the first report of bacterial DNA in human breast ductal fluid and the differences between NAF from HC and BC. Further investigation of the ductal microbiome and its potential role in breast cancer are warranted.

PMID:
27324944
PMCID:
PMC4914981
DOI:
10.1038/srep28061
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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